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Inclusive Stakeholder Participation and Consultation


Financiers, Developers, and Contractors should meaningfully consult with and facilitate the active participation of Affected People, Civil Society Organizations (CSOs)/Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs), the Media, Researchers/Experts, and the Host Country Government, among other key stakeholders, throughout the project life cycle. Available project-related information should be shared with key stakeholders in accessible formats before they are consulted and directly involved in project planning, decision-making, and implementation. Financiers should work with Contractors and Developers to engage Affected People, among other stakeholders, in ways that are responsive to their language, gender, culture, ability, livelihood, and other needs. The nature, scope, and frequency of stakeholder involvement should be scaled to each project, as well as its risks and impacts. It should involve a combination of meetings, workshops, forums, focus group discussions, and interviews with diverse groups of Affected People, while enabling these stakeholders to voice their concerns, perspectives, and ideas without fear of manipulation, interference, coercion, discrimination, or intimidation.

Inclusive stakeholder participation and consultation allow local communities and other host country stakeholders to collaborate with Contractors, Developers, and Financiers. When these project proponents empower stakeholders through engagement and knowledge sharing, local communities and other host country stakeholders will have greater opportunities to shape the planning and implementation of BRI projects. Organizing a more formalized community coordination committee with representation of Developers, Contractors, Subcontractors, Affected People, CSOs/NGOs, and other key stakeholders would deepen collaboration on ensuring the sustainability and equitability of project outcomes.

How Would It Work?

For Overseas Projects:

The Chinese Government should:

  • Build mutually beneficial cooperation networks and platforms that take into account host countries’ needs for green growth and sustainable development.1
    • Construct bilateral and multilateral mechanisms for dialogue and exchange between GovernmentsThink Tanks, CSOs/NGOs, companies, and the public on concepts, laws, regulations, policies, standards, strategies, and action plans for environmental protection.2
  • Promote collaborative development and the fulfillment of the social responsibilities by Financiers, Developers, and Contractors.3


Financiers, Developers, and Contractors should:

  • Improve communication with environmental protection organizations and other CSOs/NGOs, the Media, Affected People, and the Host Country Government.4
  • Engage Lawyers, Environmental Consultants, CSOs/NGOs, and Think Tanks to better understand host countries’ environmental laws and regulations, as well as their social and cultural norms.5


Financiers should:

  • Review “the authenticity, representativeness, procedural compliance, and validity of community involvement” within compliance examination documents submitted by Developers and Contractors.6
  • Collect opinions and suggestions from communities, workers, suppliers, and other stakeholders.7
    • Accept stakeholders’ suggestions and opinions.
  • Openly consult the public in accordance with host country requirements for projects with significant adverse environmental and social impacts.8
  • Require Developers and Contractors to:9
    • Engage in meaningful consultation with stakeholders during pre-project planning and implementation in a manner commensurate with projects’ risks and impacts.
    • Include a record of the consultations and a list of participants in the environmental and social impact assessment (ESIA) documentation.
    • Respond to the reasonable demands of Affected People, CSOs/NGOs, and other stakeholders during the project implementation and operations phases.
  • Strengthen relationships with stakeholders.10
    • Involve members of the general public and provide them with opportunities to support development activities and risk prevention measures.11
  • Protect the elderly and less privileged communities.12
  • Promote cultural exchanges.13


Developers and Contractors:

  • Form a community engagement team or department in accordance with the guidance of the China International Contractors Association (CHINCA).14
    • Establish company management positions responsible for community participation.15
    • Hire community engagement specialists.
    • Hire interpreters who can converse in the local languages, including the languages of minorities and Indigenous peoples, and are sensitive to local cultures.
  • Undertake stakeholder mapping to identify individuals or groups that are influential in or could be impacted by project decisions and activities.16
    • Conduct desk and field research to understand the background of communities.17
    • As early as possible, identify the needs of and risks to communities, particularly with respect to land acquisition, site selection, employment, environmental impact assessment (EIA), and other issues that require communication and negotiation.18
  • Communicate with potentially affected parties as soon as possible.19
    • Create a welcoming environment for stakeholders that is open to public opinion.20 Discontinue practices that do not involve talking or listening.
      • Modes of engagement to consider include public meetings, briefings, on-site community liaison office, closed-door meetings, home visits, phone calls, and hotlines.21
    • Hold meetings in places that would be accessible by public transportation, including for people with disabilities.22
    • Use local languages, idioms, and colloquial interpretations of technical words to increase accessibility.23
    • Be mindful of ethnic and religious taboos.24
    • Take into consideration existing power imbalances between parties.25
  • Establish regular communication mechanisms, including a multi-stakeholder consultation mechanism, to engage in constructive dialogue with Affected People and other stakeholders.26
    • Prioritize CHINCA’s six principles of community engagement:27
      • Focus on equality and mutual benefits.
      • Seek common ground while preserving differences.
      • Engage in two-way communication.
      • Provide consistent information to avoid giving contradictory signals.
      • Respect local customs.
      • Turn words into deeds.
    • Strengthen communication and exchanges with local communities throughout the project life cycle.28
      • Host workshops and symposia to gather community members’ opinions and advice about projects’ impacts in accordance with host country laws and regulations.29
      • Actively consult local communities on how to use land with specific cultural, ecological, economic, or religious significance.30
      • Collect local residents’ views from community representatives to improve projects.31
    • Communicate with local trade unions, religious and ethnic leaders, and other host country stakeholders.32
    • Establish contact with the Media to increase engagement with target audience(s).33
    • Avoid making quick and unrealistic promises that cannot be achieved.34
    • Discuss matters related to environmental protection with stakeholders in a timely manner.35
    • Proactively solicit, respect, and respond to stakeholder feedback, expectations, and concerns in a transparent manner.36 See Establishment and Maintenance of a Grievance Mechanism for more information about this process.
  • Establish partnerships with local communities, Governments, CSOs/NGOs, and other stakeholders.37
    • Improve relations with the local people by being honest and fostering trust.38
    • Collaborate with stakeholders on avoiding and mitigating adverse impacts.39
    • Empower CSOs/NGOs to engage in supervision, advocacy, and collaboration to help identify risks.40
  • Fully consider and accommodate the interests and concerns of all stakeholders. Account for how projects disproportionately affect certain groups.41
    • Respect Affected People’s right to exercise control over their own economic, social, and cultural development.42
    • Engage and seek the support of Affected People, including those with legitimate tenure rights, prior to decision-making.43
    • Support low-income groups, women, people with disabilities, and other vulnerable groups.44 Consider whether engagement channels would inconvenience vulnerable groups.45
  • Establish and maintain an ongoing relationship with affected Indigenous peoples based on informed consultation and participation.46
    • Respect and protect the culture and heritage of Indigenous peoples.47
    • Directly consult Indigenous peoples to ensure that each project respects their rights, culture, and natural resource–based livelihoods.48
    • Engage a trusted independent Expert and/or CSO/NGO if consultation cannot be conducted directly.49
    • Obtain the Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) of Indigenous peoples for new projects, and changes to existing projects, that could have significant adverse impacts on these communities, as well as the lands that they either traditionally own or customarily use.50
    • Do not engage in project activities that would harm local and traditional cultures.51
  • Encourage cooperation in green development with companies and institutions in host countries.52
    • Establish effective collaboration mechanisms with environmental protection regulators and relevant organizations in host countries.53
    • Proactively seek their suggestions on environmental protection management.
    • Learn about environmentally sensitive areas through cooperation with environmental protection organizations.
  • Ensure active, free, effective, meaningful, and informed participation of individuals and groups in decision-making processes.54
    • Engage Affected People in developing the scope of each project.55
    • Consider the expectations of stakeholders when making decisions.56
    • Encourage community members to participate in major decision-making processes.57
  • Establish stakeholder engagement mechanisms to facilitate their participation in projects.58
  • Carry out cultural exchanges with host countries.59
    • Respect local customs.60
      • Attend and support local festivals and religious events.61

Financiers should:

  • Work with Developers and Contractors to design and implement meaningful consultation processes.
    • Require Developers and Contractors to engage with Affected People, CSOs/NGOs, Researchers/Experts, and other stakeholders through consistent information disclosure, ongoing consultation, and routine participation.
    • Form project teams to participate in consultation activities for projects with significant adverse environmental and social impacts and better understand the concerns of Affected People.
    • Ensure that the concerns of Affected People are addressed in the environmental and social management plan (ESMP), project design, and other documentation.
  • Monitor, as part of due diligence, the implementation of consultation and stakeholder engagement by Developers and Contractors.
    • Ensure that consultations and other forms of engagement with Affected People are conducted in accordance with internal requirements.
  • Require Developers and Contractors to obtain the FPIC of Indigenous peoples.
    • Not finance any project if the FPIC is not given by Indigenous communities.


Developers and Contractors should:

  • Define clear roles, responsibilities, and authority for staff and senior management.
    • Encourage culturally appropriate conduct by providing training to staff on the local cultures, customs, and traditions.
    • Designate specific personnel to be responsible for the implementation and monitoring of stakeholder engagement activities and compliance.
  • Develop a stakeholder engagement plan that identifies groups of key stakeholders, their possible roles and responsibilities in each project, and potential modes of engagement.
    • Identify which local communities could be affected by project activities and which CSOs/NGOs already have connections to these communities or engage in relevant work.
      • Determine the appropriate level(s) of communication for each group or type of stakeholders.
      • Identify, and determine ideal modes of engagement for, Affected People who may be disadvantaged or vulnerable because of their circumstances.
      • Hire independent third-party specialists to assist in identifying stakeholders and designing an inclusive engagement process.
    • Design consultation processes that ensure all relevant parties have a voice.
      • Describe the timing and methods of engagement with different types of stakeholders throughout the life cycle of the project.
      • Ensure that a significant amount of time is allocated toward meaningful consultation with Affected People during the pre-project planning phase.
    • Determine the type of information that should be shared between stakeholders.
    • Identify the main characteristics and interests of each group of stakeholders, in addition to the appropriate levels of engagement and consultation.
    • Set out procedures for Developers and Contractors to communicate with stakeholders.
    • Describe measures to facilitate the participation of vulnerable groups.
  • Submit the draft stakeholder engagement plan to Financiers for their review and approval as early as possible.
  • Hire Interpreters who are well versed in the local dialect(s) and language(s), including minority and Indigenous languages.
    • Work with Interpreters to produce translations of the stakeholder engagement plan.
    • Notify Affected People, CSOs/NGOs, and other key stakeholders in and around project sites of every meeting at least two weeks in advance by sending a formal letter, speaking on the local community radio, posting a message on the community advertising board, and/or sharing a message at the village/town/city/district/provincial hall.
  • During the first or second meeting, provide translations of the draft stakeholder engagement plan for Affected People to reference and, as needed, communicate their contents orally and visually.
    • Incorporate feedback from Affected People, CSOs/NGOs, and other key stakeholders into the plan.
    • Record their proposals for stakeholder engagement in the future.
    • Submit the finalized plan to Financiers for each project.
  • Submit the finalized stakeholder engagement plan to Financiers for their review and approval.
    • Disclose the final version in the local language(s) and dialect(s), Chinese, and English on their websites and at the village/town/city/district/provincial hall as early as possible.
  • Ensure other objective and pertinent information has been disclosed and disseminated in the local language(s) and dialect(s). See Transparent and In-Depth Information Sharing for more insight into adequate information disclosure.
  • Undertake an ongoing process of meaningful consultation in accordance with the stakeholder engagement plan throughout the project life cycle.
    • Gather initial views on each project’s design, risks, potential impacts, mitigation measures, alternatives, monitoring activities, implementation procedures, compensation, relocation assistance, livelihood restoration, recruitment and hiring practices, and potential employment opportunities during the pre-project planning phase.
    • Seek feedback from stakeholders on Developers’ and Contractors’ environmental and social performance, as well as projects’ environmental and social impacts during project implementation. See Project Monitoring and Reporting for information about collecting stakeholder input in preparation of routine monitoring reports.
  • Foster an environment that is free of manipulation, interference, coercion, discrimination, and intimidation.
    • Ensure community representatives or liaisons collectively have the necessary backgrounds, connections, and relationships to fully represent their communities and facilitate two-way exchanges of information.
  • Tailor engagement to the needs of disadvantaged and vulnerable groups.
    • Account for the differing concerns and preferences of disadvantaged or vulnerable groups.
    • Provide additional support to facilitate the participation of women, the elderly, youth, people with disabilities, minorities, and Indigenous peoples.
  • Build on channels of communication and engagement that are already established among Affected People and other stakeholders, such as routine community meetings.
    • Approach community leaders in advance about the possibility of discussing the project with their communities at these meetings.
  • If separate or supplementary meetings (such as forums, workshops, focus group discussions, and interviews) need to be arranged, offer times that are considerate of the livelihoods, household responsibilities, religious practices, and other time commitments of Affected People.
    • Avoid scheduling meetings at meal or prayer times or during festivals.
  • Adopt dedicated approaches and use additional resources to engage with groups and individuals affected in different ways.
    • Organize focus group discussions for each vulnerable group of Affected People, including, but not limited to, the elderly, youth, people with disabilities, Indigenous peoples, minorities, and women.
    • Secure female staff to convene women-only meetings when appropriate. Provide training in gender equality, discrimination, and violence to these company representatives. 
  • Select venues that would be convenient for Affected People to reach by walking and/or public transportation.
    • Consider locations near the project sites.
    • Offer transportation arrangements to people with disabilities and/or visit them in accessible locations.
  • Continue to work with Interpreters to communicate in the local dialect(s) and language(s), including minority and Indigenous languages, and engage in oral and/or written communication.
    • Hire female Interpreters to facilitate supplementary women-only meetings.
  • Hire scientific or technical Experts to explain complex issues and answer stakeholders’ questions.
    • Hire female Experts to participate in women-only meetings.
  • Offer childcare support to Affected People to enable parents, including single heads of household, to participate.
  • Cover all costs associated with meeting attendance, including, but not limited to venues, refreshments, meeting materials, transportation, childcare, Interpreters, and Experts.
    • Inform Affected People of all costs that will be covered.
    • Proactively reimburse Affected People for any costs that they have incurred to attend each meeting.
  • Record stakeholder requests, feedback, concerns, and queries, as well as information about local values regarding culture and the environment, to consider internally, incorporate into project plans, and address during future meetings.
    • Maintain a list of attendees to include in the stakeholder engagement plan. Ask attendees for permission before taking photos.
    • Share copies of meeting summaries or notes with Affected People.
    • Follow up with attendees on specific issues, when necessary.
  • For larger or higher-risk projects, consider ​​organizing a more formalized community coordination committee with representation of Developers, Contractors, Subcontractors, Affected People, CSOs/NGOs, and other key stakeholders.
    • Involve a diverse group of community representatives — not solely Community Leaders — and CSOs/NGOs.
    • Allow the Affected People to choose their representatives for the community coordination committee.
    • Ensure that the perspectives, interests, and needs of vulnerable groups are represented by at least one community member (e.g., a woman; a person of every ethnic, religious, or linguistic minority; a member of an Indigenous community; an elderly person; a young person; and a person with a disability).
    • Provide appropriate support and training to community representatives and CSOs/NGOs that are participating in the committee.
    • Convene each committee on a monthly basis to discuss the project.
      • Inform each committee of takeaways from meetings with other affected communities’ committees.
      • Record meeting minutes and summaries. Provide copies of these materials directly to participants, Developers, Contractors, and Subcontractors.
      • Maintain a record of attendees.
    • Follow up on stakeholders’ comments/queries/concerns/complaints with appropriate responses and corresponding actions at future meetings.
  • Disclose information about consultation as part of the ESIA, including a description of the stakeholders consulted, a summary of their feedback, and an explanation of how feedback was incorporated into the report or the reasons why it was not.
  • Invite Affected People, CSOs/NGOs, and other key stakeholders to participate in decision-making processes.
    • Share draft versions of project agreements in the local dialect(s) and language(s).
    • Collect stakeholder feedback on these agreements.
    • Account for stakeholders’ comments, ideas, or reservations while finalizing project documentation.
    • Provide explanations for why each piece of stakeholder feedback was or was not incorporated into final project agreements.
    • See Review of and Decision on ESIA and ESMP for information about public participation in the ESIA decision-making process.
    • Obtain the FPIC of Indigenous peoples.62
What Would You Be Able to Do?
  • Browse the websites of Financiers, Developers, Contractors, Subcontractors, and the Host Country Government for information about their own procedures or guidelines for communication and consultation with stakeholders.
    • If any of this information is unavailable, ask the appropriate actor to publicly disclose specific details in your native language. See Stakeholders to identify some of the available mode(s) of contact.
  • If you are unable to directly contact the Contractors and/or Subcontractors, reach out to the Financiers, Developers, and/or the Host Country Government for assistance.
    • If you are unable to directly contact the Financiers, Developers, and/or the Host Country Government, reach out to a Community Leader, CSO/NGO, Local Government Authority, or the nearest Chinese Embassy/Consulate for assistance.
  • Request draft and final copies of the stakeholder engagement plan and all other project-related documentation, including maps, drawings, charts, diagrams, brochures, scoping study, ESIA report, the ESMP, and other technical documents, as well as public comments, in your native language.
  • Join the collaborative monitoring council/community coordination committee or nominate a trusted member of your household or community to participate.
    • Speak with Developers, Contractors, and/or Experts about any support and training in evaluation, monitoring, and reporting that you may need.
  • Attend project meetings whenever you are available.
    • Share your views on each project’s design, risks, potential impacts, mitigation measures, alternatives, monitoring activities, implementation procedures, compensation, relocation assistance, livelihood restoration, and potential employment opportunities.
    • Ask questions if you have trouble understanding any aspect of a project.
    • Encourage Developers and Contractors to invite Experts to future discussions to explain scientific or technical information.
    • Maintain a record of your attendance and participation — either on paper or on your phone.
    • Ask Financiers, Developers, Contractors, and the Host Country Government to reimburse transportation costs and cover other costs associated with attendance.
    • Set aside time to discuss the materials with other community members, CSOs/NGOs, and appropriate Experts.
    • Provide feedback directly or anonymously to Financiers, Developers, Contractors, and the Host Country Government.
    • At future meetings, ask Developers and Contractors about specific ways in which your views have been incorporated into project plans and future opportunities to participate in project decision-making.
  • If a meeting is scheduled at a time that does not work for you, ensure that a trusted community representative or CSO/NGO can represent you at the meeting.
    • Provide written remarks in advance for that community representative or CSO/NGO to share on your behalf.
    • Ask that community representative or CSO/NGO to pass along notes and other project documentation after the meeting.
    • Request official copies of Developers’ and Contractors’ meeting minutes or summaries.
  • If meetings are routinely held at times that do not work for you or otherwise do not meet your needs, reach out to Developers and Contractors to ask about making alternative arrangements.
    • Propose meeting times and venues that would work for you.
    • Request that Developers and Contractors coordinate smaller focus group discussions or interviews for vulnerable or disadvantaged groups to participate in.
    • Ask Developers and Contractors to send female Facilitators and Interpreters to convene women-only meetings.
    • Request childcare support or other resources from Developers and Contractors, so that you can attend these meetings.
  • For Indigenous peoples, give or withhold your FPIC for each project.
    • Provide a detailed written explanation of any conditions attached to this consent.
    • Add your signature or thumbprint to formalize documentation regarding your consent.
    • Retain a signed copy of this documentation for your own records.
  • Report any instances of manipulation, interference, coercion, discrimination, and intimidation to Developers’ and Contractors’ project-level grievance mechanisms, Financiers’ appeal response mechanisms, and other avenues available in your host country.
What Would It Accomplish or Prevent?

Consulting local communities on all aspects of each project and enabling their meaningful participation throughout the project life cycle would:

  • Promote two-way communication between Financiers, Developers, and Contractors, on the one hand, and local communities, host country stakeholders, and other third-party stakeholders, on the other. Foster mutual understanding and win-win cooperation.
  • Enhance collaboration by proactively including stakeholders in meetings, consultations, decisions, and other project activities.
  • Align Financiers’, Developers’, and Contractors’ practices with Chinese policies and guidelines for stakeholder consultation and participation, as well as international best practices.
  • Address critical gaps in compliance with host country laws, regulations, and procedures related to public participation.
  • Increase transparency and accountability of project-specific operations.
  • Build trust and capacity among local communities, host country stakeholders, and other third-party stakeholders.
  • Improve the overall quality of each project. Ensure local and Indigenous knowledge, expertise, and practices inform project decision-making, implementation, and operations.
  • Reduce the risk of protests, damage, or other forms of conflict during the project implementation and operations phases.
  • Curb significant commercial costs from delays caused by social upheaval, especially during the project implementation and operations phases.
  • Bolster Developers’ and Contractors’ annual company rankings or credit ratings for observing host country laws and regulations, disclosing environmental, social, and governance (ESG) information, and fulfilling other social responsibilities.
  • Elevate China’s standing as a global source of Financiers, Developers, or Contractors for high-quality development that meets the needs of even the most vulnerable members of host country populations.
  • Mekong Partnership for the Environment, "Public Participation Plan Template," Guidelines on Public Participation in Environmental Impact Assessment in the Mekong Region, First Edition, March 2017, View the PDF.
  • People of Asia for Climate Solutions (PACS) et al., “A Guide for Engaging Chinese Stakeholders in the Framework of the Belt and Road Initiative,” June 2022, View the Sample Cover Letter or View the Full Communication Guide.
  • World Bank, “Stakeholder Engagement Plan Template,” Environmental and Social Framework, 2018, View the PDF.
  • Accountability Framework, "Operational Guidance on Free, Prior and Informed Consent: Requirements, Best Practices, and Practical Considerations for Companies to Fulfil Their Obligation to Secure the Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) of Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities," May 2020, View the PDF.
  • Asian Development Bank (ADB), “Strengthening Participation for Development Results: An Asian Development Bank Guide to Participation,” February 2012, View the PDF for Desktop or View the ePublication for Mobile.
  • Christina Hill, Serena Lillywhite, and Michael Simon, "Guide to Free Prior and Informed Consent," Oxfam Australia, June 2010, View the PDF.
  • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN), "Free Prior and Informed Consent: An Indigenous Peoples’ Right and A Good Practice for Local Communities: Manual for Project Practitioners," View the PDF.
  • Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), "FSC Guidelines for the Implementation of the Right to Free, Prior, and Informed Consent (FPIC)," March 9, 2021, View the PDF.
  • Global Infrastructure Hub (GI Hub), “Stakeholder Identification, Engagement and Empowerment,” View the Website.
  • International Accountability Project (IAP), "Community Action Guide on Community-Led Research," View the PDF, View the Checklist, or View the Survey Template.
  • International Finance Corporation (IFC), "Doing Better Business Through Effective Public Consultation and Disclosure: A Good Practice Manual," October 1998, View the PDF.
  • International Finance Corporation (IFC), “Stakeholder Engagement: A Good Practice Handbook for Companies Doing Business in Emerging Markets,” May 2007, View the Website.
  • International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), "Guidance Note: Stakeholder Engagement in IUCN Projects," Environmental & Social Management System (ESMS), Version 2.1, May 2021, View the PDF.
  • Oxfam, "Free Prior and Informed Consent Manuals (FPIC)," July 14, 2020, View the Collection.
  • Reidar Kvam, “Meaningful Stakeholder Engagement,” Inter-American Development Bank (IADB), A Joint Publication of the Multilateral Financial Institutions Group on Environmental and Social Standards, 2019, View the PDF.
  • SynTao-Sustainability Solutions and China International Contractors Association (CHINCA), “Community Engagement Handbook for Chinese International Contractors,” 2021 Edition, View the PDF.
  • Taylor Kennedy, Tim Martin, and Margaret Lee, "The Practice of FPIC: Insights from the FPIC Solutions Dialogue," RESOLVE, 2021, View the Website.
  • United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (UN-REDD Programme), "Guidelines on Free, Prior and Informed Consent," January 2013, View the PDF.
  • United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), “Guidance Note: Stakeholder Engagement,” UNDP Social and Environmental Standards (SES), July 2022, View the PDF.
  • International Association for Public Participation (IAP2), “IAP2 Spectrum of Public Participation,” 2018, View the PDF.
  • Pierre Andre et al., “Public Participation: International Best Practice Principles,” International Association of Impact Assessment (IAIA), Special Publication Series No. 4, August 2006, View the PDF.

1 Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) (now Ministry of Ecology and Environment (MEE)), “Guidance on Promoting Green Belt and Road,” April 2017.

2 MEP, “The Belt and Road Ecological and Environmental Cooperation Plan,” May 2017.

3 MEE, “Guiding Opinions on Promoting Investment and Financing to Address Climate Change,” October 2020.

4 Green Finance Initiative and Green Finance Committee (GFC), “Green Investment Principles (GIP) for the Belt and Road,” 2018; GFC et al., “Environmental Risk Management Initiative for China’s Overseas Investment,” September 2017; Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) and MEE, “New Guidelines for Green Development in Overseas Investment and Cooperation,” July 2021; State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council (SASAC), “Measures for the Supervision and Administration of Overseas Investment by Central Enterprises,” January 2017.

5 GFC et al., “Environmental Risk Management Initiative.”

6 China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC) and China Insurance Regulatory Commission (now China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission (CBIRC)), “Key Performance Indicators of Green Credit Implementation,” 2014.

7 CBRC and CIRC, “Key Performance Indicators;” Bank of China (Hong Kong) (BOCHK), “Sustainability Policy,” 2021.

8 ​​Export-Import Bank of China (China Exim Bank), “Guidelines for Environmental and Social Impact Assessment for Project Loans of the China Export and Import Bank,” 2007.

9 ​​CBRC and CIRC, “Guidelines on Regulating the Banking Industry in Serving Enterprises’ Overseas Development and Strengthening Risk Control,” January 2017.

10 Ibid.

11 China Development Bank (CDB), “CDB Culture Manual,” 2016.

12 BOCHK, “Sustainability Policy.”

13 CDB, “Culture Manual.”

14 SynTao and China International Contractors Association (CHINCA), “Community Engagement Handbook for Chinese International Contractors-北京商道纵横信息科技有限责任公司,” 2021.

15 Responsible Minerals Initiative (RMI) and Responsible Cobalt Initiative (RCI), “Cobalt Refiner Supply Chain Due Diligence Standard (version 2.0),” 2021.

16 China Chamber of Commerce Metals, Minerals and Chemicals Importers and Exporters (CCCMC), “Guidelines for Social Responsibility in Outbound Mining Investments,” 2017.

17 SynTao and CHINCA, “Community Engagement Handbook.”

18 Ibid.

19 RMI and RCI, “Cobalt Refiner Supply.”

20 State Council, “Nine Principles on Encouraging and Standardizing Outward Investment,” October 2006.

21 SynTao and CHINCA, “Community Engagement Handbook.”

22 Ibid.

23 Ibid.

24 Ibid.

25 CCCMC et al., “Guidance for Sustainable Natural Rubber,” 2017.

26 State Forestry and Grassland Administration (SFGA) and Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM), “Guide on Sustainable Overseas Forest Management and Utilization by Chinese Enterprises,” 2009; China Three Gorges Corporation (CTG), “CTG Sustainable Development Policy,” 2017; CCCMC et al., “Sustainable Natural Rubber;” SynTao and CHINCA, “Community Engagement Handbook.”

27 SynTao and CHINCA, “Community Engagement Handbook.”

28 CHINCA, “Draft Revisions to Guide on Social Responsibility for Chinese International Contractors,” July 2021.

29 MOFCOM and MEP, “Guidelines for Environmental Protection in Foreign Investment and Cooperation,” February 2013; China-ASEAN Investment Cooperation Fund (CAF), “Social Responsibility and Environmental Protection Guidelines for Investments in the ASEAN Region,” 2014.

30 SFGA and MOFCOM, “Sustainable Overseas Forest Management.”

31 CHINCA and Dagong Global Credit Rating, “Guidelines of Sustainable Infrastructure for Chinese International Contractors (SIG),” June 2017.

32 MOFCOM, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA), and SASAC, “Circular to Regulate the Overseas Investment and Cooperation of Chinese Companies,” June 2008; National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) et al., “Code of Conduct for the Operation of Overseas Investments by Private Enterprises,” December 2017.

33 SynTao and CHINCA, “Community Engagement Handbook.”

34 Ibid.

35 MEP, “Belt and Road Ecological.”

36 CAF, “Investments in the ASEAN Region;” CCCMC, “Outbound Mining Investments;” CCCMC, “Chinese Due Diligence Guidelines for Responsible Mineral Supply Chains,” 2015; SynTao and CHINCA, “Community Engagement Handbook.”

37 RMI and RCI, “Cobalt Refiner Supply;” CCCMC et al., “Sustainable Natural Rubber.”

38 MOFOM, MFA, and SASAC, “Circular to Regulate.”

39 CCCMC et al., “Sustainable Natural Rubber.”

40 SynTao and CHINCA, “Community Engagement Handbook.”

41 SFGA and MOFCOM, “Sustainable Overseas Forest Management;” NDRC and National Energy Administration (NEA), “Vision and Actions on Energy Cooperation in Jointly Building Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road,” 2017; SynTao and CHINCA, “Community Engagement Handbook.”

42 CCCMC et al., “Sustainable Natural Rubber.”

43 SFGA and MOFCOM, “Sustainable Overseas Forest Management.”

44 CHINCA, “Draft Revisions.”

45 SynTao and CHINCA, “Community Engagement Handbook.”

46 CAF, “Investments in the ASEAN Region.”

47 CCCMC, “Outbound Mining Investments;” CTG, “Sustainable Development Policy.”

48 Ibid.

49 Ibid.

50 Ibid; CAF, “Investments in the ASEAN Region.”

51 CCCMC, “Outbound Mining Investments.”

52 MOFCOM and MEE, “New Guidelines.”

53 CCCMC, “Outbound Mining Investments.”

54 CCCMC et al., “Sustainable Natural Rubber.”

55 Ibid.  

56 CHINCA, "Guide on Social Responsibility for Chinese International Contractors," September 2012.

57 SFGA and MOFCOM, “Sustainable Overseas Forest Management.”

58 CHINCA, “Guide on Social Responsibility;” MOFOM, MFA, and SASAC, “Circular to Regulate;” CCCMC, “Outbound Mining Investments.”

59 NDRC et al., “Code of Conduct.”

60 CHINCA, “Draft Revisions;” SynTao and CHINCA, “Community Engagement Handbook;” SASAC, “Measures for the Supervision;” MOFCOM, “Provisions on Standardizing Competition in Foreign Investment and Cooperation,” March 2013; MOFCOM, “Administrative Measures on Outbound Investment,” September 2014; MOFCOM and MEP, “Guidelines for Environmental Protection;” MOFCOM et al., “Provisional Measures for Recording Bad Credit in the Fields of Outbound Investment and Cooperation and Foreign Trade,” July 2013; MOFCOM, MFA, and SASAC, “Circular to Regulate;” NDRC, “Measures for the Administration of Overseas Investment of Enterprises,” December 2017; NDRC et al., “Code of Conduct;” State Council, “Regulations on the Administration of Foreign Contracted Projects,” July 2017; MOFCOM, “Measures for the Administration of Foreign Aid (Trial),” 2014; China International Development Cooperation Agency (CIDCA), MFA, and MOFCOM, “Measures for the Administration of Foreign Aid,” August 2021; MOFCOM et al., “Guideline for Promoting High-quality Development of Overseas Contracted Projects,” August 2019; CBRC and CIRC, “Guidelines on Regulating;” CHINCA, “Administrative Measures for the Credit File of Member Enterprises of the China International Contractors Association,” 2018; CTG, “Sustainable Development Policy;” Sinohydro, “Sustainable Development Policy;” SFGA and MOFCOM, “Sustainable Overseas Forest Management.”

61 CHINCA, “Draft Revisions;” SynTao and CHINCA, “Community Engagement Handbook.”

62 International Best Practice is based on Asian Development Bank (ADB), "Safeguard Policy Statement," 2009; Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), "Environmental and Social Framework," 2021; World Bank, "Environmental and Social Framework," 2018; Mekong Partnership for the Environment, "Guidelines on Public Participation in Environmental Impact Assessment in the Mekong Region," First Edition, 2017.