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Authorities at national and subnational levels of ministries and departments in the Host Country Government oversee BRI projects and, sometimes, serve as developers for these investments.

Possible Roles and Responsibilities of the Host Country Government:

  • Screen and categorize projects by environmental and social risks and impacts.
  • Work with Chinese developers through a joint venture (JV) or a consortium.
  • Oversee the design, planning, implementation, and operation of BRI projects.
  • Regularly inform, consult, and collaborate with potentially affected people, civil society organizations (CSOs)/nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and other stakeholders.
  • Consult Indigenous peoples and obtain Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC).
  • In BRI host countries where an independent body serves as the ESIA authority, charge that body with the responsibility of either assembling a panel of technical experts or selecting a specific expert to review the environmental and social impact assessment (ESIA), environmental and social management plan (ESMP), and periodic environmental and social monitoring reports for each project.
  • In other host countries, serve as the ESIA authority. Engage representatives of relevant government agencies to conduct a comprehensive review ESIAs, ESMPs, and periodic monitoring reports.
  • Disclose project-related information, including ESIAs and ESMPs, on government agencies’ websites and in public forums.
  • Share project-related documents in the local languages with affected people.
  • Manage processes for acquiring land and providing adequate compensation, resettlement, and livelihood restoration assistance to affected people.
  • Establish and maintain a grievance mechanism for specific aspects of infrastructure projects, such as environmental and social assessment and management (ESAM), land acquisition, and employment issues.
  • Encourage and support the recruitment and employment of local workers.