With a solution-oriented mandate, the Asia Society Policy Institute (ASPI) tackles major policy challenges confronting the AsiaPacific in security, prosperity, sustainability, and the development of common norms and values for the region. The Asia Society Policy Institute is a think- and do-tank designed to bring forth policy ideas that incorporate the best thinking from top experts in Asia and to work with policymakers to integrate these ideas and put them into practice.
The Asia Society Policy Institute (ASPI) is grateful to the many stakeholders consulted for sharing their time and expertise in the course of this project.
Our special appreciation to Chaeri Park, Christopher Cooper, Eric Li, Arthur Xie, Audrey Tey, Alisha Chhangani, Emily Zimmermann, Aislin Salassi, Martin Kendrick, Jr., Mark Bryan Manantan, and Sholto Byrnes for supporting this project’s research, writing, and publication efforts.
This project was made possible with support from the Cyber and Critical Tech Cooperation Program, Department of Foreign Affairs, and Trade Australia.
About the Authors and ASPI
Elina Noor is Director, Political-Security Affairs and Deputy Director, Washington, D.C. office at the Asia Society Policy Institute. A native of Malaysia, Elina focuses on security developments in Southeast Asia as well as global governance and technology. Elina was previously at the Daniel K. Inouye Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, the Institute of Strategic and International Studies Malaysia, and the Brookings Institution. Between 2017 and 2019, she was a member of the Global Commission on the Stability of Cyberspace. She currently serves on the ICRC’s Global Advisory Board on digital threats during conflict.
Mark Bryan Manantan is Senior Fellow for Cybersecurity and Critical Technology at the Pacific Forum in Honolulu, Hawaii. His current research focuses on the nexus of diplomacy, security, and governance of technology and innovation in Southeast Asia and the Indo-Pacific. He is also a non-resident fellow at the Center for Southeast Asian Studies, at the National Chengchi University, Taiwan, and formerly a visiting fellow at the Japan Foundation, the Center for Rule-Making Strategies at Tama University in Tokyo, Japan, and the East-West Center, Washington D.C.
The Asia Society Policy Institute and the Asia Society take no institutional positions on matters of public policy and other issues addressed in the reports and publications they sponsor. All statements of fact and expressions of opinion contained in this report are the sole responsibility of its authors and may not reflect the views of the organization and its board, staff, and supporters.
AI Artificial Intelligence
AIDA Artificial Intelligence and Data Analytics
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations
CBPR Cross-Border Privacy Rules
CCA Computer Crime Act
CLOUD Clarifying Lawful Oversees Use of Data
CPTPP Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership
DEA Digital Economy Agency
DEPA Digital Economy Promotion Agency
DGA Digital Government Development Agency
EEC Eastern Economic Corridor
EU European Union
FASTER Fusion Analytics for Public Transport Emergency Response
GDPR General Data Protection Regulation
GMV Gross Merchandise Volume
GovTech Government Technology Agency of Singapore
MAS Monetary Authority of Singapore
ML Machine learning
MICT Ministry of Information and Communication Technology
MSMEs Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises
PDPA Personal Data Protection Act
PDPC Personal Data Protection Commission(er)
ICT Information and Communications Technology
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
ILO International Labor Organization
IMEI International Mobile Equipment Identity
IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity
IoT Internet of Things
ISAGO Implementation and Self-Assessment Guide for Organizations
ISO International Organization for Standardization
ITU International Telecommunication Union
NAIS National AI Strategy
NDID National Digital Identity
NECTEC National Electronic and Computer Technology Center
NGO Non-Governmental Organization
NLP Natural language processing
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
OIML International Organization of Legal Metrology
OPDC Office of the Public Sector Development Commission
RAI Autonomous Robotics and AI
RCEP Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership
SDGs UN Sustainable Development Goals
SIM Subscriber Identity Module
SMEs Small and Medium Enterprises
TDRI Thailand Development Research Institute
UN United Nations
Artificial intelligence The ability machines, usually computer systems, have to perform task simulations that typically require high levels of human intelligence.
Big data The management of data sources that are of too high volume, velocity, variety, and value for traditional data-processing software and therefore require technologically advanced software.
Black box A system that produces results without a clear process..
Digitalization The process of incorporating digital technologies and data into economies and societies.
Digitization The conversion of analogue data and processes into a machine-readable format.
Digital economy Economic activities that use digital data and processes as key factors of production.
Fourth Industrial Revolution The transformation of the physical, digital, and physiological realms through technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI), robotics, blockchain and 3D printing.
Internet of Things A networked ecosystem that connects data-driven applications and devices with the physical world.
Machine learning The process by which machines, typically computer systems, construct algorithms and statistical approaches from historical data and make predictions for future situations.