Thailand’s foray into AI started in the 1970s, marked by a gradual and sustained engagement and collaboration between the government, academia, and research institutes. Despite limited funding allocation and resources, Thailand’s AI development has undergone a steady transformation, with some scholars suggesting the following timescale: Pioneering Period (1988–1999), Research Roadmap Creation (2000–2005), Synergy and Alignment (2006–2010) to the Practical Applications of AI Research (2011–onwards).357
In recent years, Bangkok has released policy frameworks and initiatives to bolster its AI competitiveness. The National Higher Education, Science, Research, and Innovation Policy Council (Policy Council) approved the draft version of the National AI Master Plan 2021-2027, which outlines two development phases.358 Under Phase 1 (2021–2022), Thailand will establish key aspects of AI development from data governance guidelines, data analytics and AI infrastructure, to human resources, entrepreneurs, agriculture, and government services. During Phase 2 (2023-2027), there will be an expansion on research and development and applications of AI across target industrial sectors.359
In early 2022, the National AI Strategy (NAIS) was finally published, outlining a framework to strengthen Thailand’s competitive position in AI development, as well as its readiness for the evolving social, ethical, legal, and other regulatory dimensions of AI application.360 To implement the strategy, the National AI committee, and its sub-committees—(1) Regulation and Social; (2) Data and Infrastructure; (3) Human resources and Research, Development, and Innovation; (4) Industry promotion and Investments—were established to facilitate collaborative participation among different government ministries.361 At the time of writing, NAIS362 is currently waiting for cabinet approval.
The Draft National AI Master Plan and subsequently, the NAIS build on core documents such as the 20-Year National Strategic Plan released in 2017, which aims to boost Thailand’s digital economic development in the long term.363 Under Thailand’s National Strategy (2018 – 2037), AI was identified as one of the key drivers to advance the country’s economy, alongside the Internet of Things, big data analytics, robotics, and drone technology.364 Given the drastic shift in Thailand’s ageing demographics, AI is expected to improve the country’s healthcare sector for greater efficiency, not only in the metropolis but also in far-flung areas.365 Additionally, AI is an integral component for the development of science, technology, and innovation, as indicated in the Twelfth National Economic and Social Development Plan (2017-2021).366
Although Thailand had an early head start with its AI research and development, discussions on AI ethics are only a recent phenomenon. In 2019, the country’s AI ethics guidelines were drafted through a joint effort by the government, academia, and the private sector. Thailand’s National Digital Economy and Society (DES) Committee led the drafting of the first AI ethics guidelines in partnership with Mahidol University and Microsoft Thailand.367 The AI ethics draft emphasizes sustainable development, equality, and fairness in conjunction with national laws and international standards.368 The guidelines will serve researchers, developers, and service providers engaging in tech development in Thailand.369 Like NAIS, the AI ethics is also awaiting approval from Cabinet.370
Usage and Impact
Under the 20-year plan of Thailand 4.0, AI is expected to help the country leap ahead in key strategic sectors, particularly industry, service, and agriculture.371 With Thailand’s increasing adoption of 5G and IoT devices, a large segment of the business sector has begun to engage customers via online platforms, while the growing availability of off-the-shelf AI technologies makes a strong case for automation.372
To meet the demands of the global supply chain, Thailand’s manufacturing industry started early on digitalization. In the last two decades, there has been a high integration of advanced ICT capabilities such as IoT, machinery, and electronics. These advantages have put Thailand ahead of its ASEAN peers in AI and its related application, robotics. According to the International Federation of Robotics in 2019, Thailand had the highest number of industrial robots in ASEAN, totaling to 3,000 units. Globally, Thailand accounts for almost one percent of the total 373,000 industrial robots in operation.373
As the manufacturing sector increasingly embraces digital transformation, it is projected that AI-infused technologies and robotics in industrial automation will help streamline supply chains across Thailand’s key industries, like automotives, food and food processing, and electronics.374 The International Federation of Robotics expects that Thailand will soon adopt self-driving vehicles to ease the movement of goods from ports to factories and warehouses and vice versa. This will raise the adoption of automated guide vehicles up to 60 percent per year to over 700,000 units by 2022.375
Digital transformation backed by AI technologies is also in full swing in Thailand’s commercial sector. Since 2018, Thailand’s banking, telecom, and retail conglomerates have been leveraging AI not only to optimize operations, sales, and marketing, but also to offer a new value proposition of convenience and efficiency to customers.376 In the banking sector, facial recognition is employed for electronic know-your-customer regulations, while machine learning and blockchain are useful for fraud detections. AI technologies help the oil and gas industry ensure road safety through detection of driver’s dangerous, while retail enterprises employ advanced AI algorithms for loyalty programs and e-commerce.
With growing enthusiasm about the integration of smart technologies and data analytics, a Bangkok Smart City plan is also underway to achieve more sustainable urban planning and development.377 Under Thailand 4.0, six more cities have committed to smart city development, namely Phuket, Chiang Mai, Khon Kaen, Chonburi, Rayong, and Chachoengsao, which all will be included in ASEAN’s Smart Cities Network.378
Given growing AI adoption, large companies are either building internal AI teams or contracting third party AI providers. Others, like Bangkok Bank, are tapping new modes of partnerships with fintech startups, launching an accelerator program called “InnoHub” to explore technology-driven solutions in wealth management.379 To encourage wide participation across business sectors in Thailand, especially among SMEs, the Digital Economy Promotion Agency (DEPA) signed a partnership with VISAI to establish the Thailand AI Research Institute.380
Under the concept of “AI for Everyone,” the institute seeks to make AI-enabled solutions available for SMEs by lessening dependency on advanced AI experts and providing off-the-shelf AI models which can be easily integrated into their business models and operations.381 Some ICT companies like IBM Thailand have also extended their multi-cloud services and AI software to support new avenues for customer engagement, product development, and automation of tasks.382
At present, Thailand is witnessing a mixture of public and private sector efforts, involving major companies like Microsoft and IBM, to mainstream AI adoption and the formulation of AI ethical standards. Prior to the entry of such multinational firms, the government in tandem with key universities and research centers were the main driving forces of AI development in the country. The outcomes of such collaboration formed the bedrock of Thailand’s early successes in producing AI applications to deliver public goods and serve as a springboard for its domestic AI industry.
During the early 1990s, initial attempts at AI development focused on Thai national language processing. These efforts led to Thailand’s first book on natural language processing as well as the first national-level research project focused on machine translation.383 In the early 2000s the direct involvement of the National Electronics and Computer Technology Center (NECTEC) served as an impetus to finally produce research development plans. Acting as roadmaps, the development plans activated increased participation among Thai universities, which led to more in-depth AI research.384
By 2010, AI development had expanded to include intelligence image processing, speech processing, machine learning, robotics, intelligence computer-aided instruction, and forecasting systems.385 With such advancements in AI’s applied research, Thailand’s AI industry finally took off particularly in health care and agricultural technologies.
Two pioneering AI applications were Vaja and CyberBrain. Vaja, a bilingual Thai/English text-to-speech application, has been used in more than 70 state hospitals for patient registration, information, and consultation services. Persons with visual disabilities use its interface to access information in online newspapers. Moreover, Vaja’s multilingual speech translation opened doors for local Thais to engage with international audiences.386 Given the uniqueness of the Thai language, Vaja’s breakthrough marked the growing maturity of Thailand’s homegrown AI technologies.
Even with its recent technological leaps, agriculture remains a central pillar of Thailand’s economy. CyberBrain, an AI-powered platform, is a pioneering agri-tech initiative in Thailand. The platform facilitates community knowledge sharing and delivery of services through IT infrastructure consolidation, information sharing, and collaboration across government agencies and its partners. Through CyberBrain, federal, state, and local governments avoid duplication and achieve proper integration of IT resources.387 For agricultural cooperatives, CyberBrain provides the organizing framework for best practices to conduct rice diagnosis and treatment services, customized fertilizing services, and soil analysis.388
Throughout AI development in Thailand over the last three decades, government policies and frameworks have played an important role in driving the country’s AI ecosystem forward. In the early 2000s, Thailand’s SchoolNet Initiative fast-tracked internet connection in schools throughout the country.389 In that same year, the government also launched the National ICT Master Plan, a roadmap that laid the foundation for the Village Broadband Internet initiative.390 Under Thailand 4.0, the highly anticipated roll-out of the 5G roadmap will further accelerate innovative solutions across the country.
Building on these accomplishments in ICT research and development over the past 25 years, the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology (MICT) which later on became MDES has been leading efforts to help the country to transition towards integrated service innovation to achieve a Smart Thailand driven by various Smart applications from health, education, and energy, to tourism and agriculture.391
In 2020, the Bangkok-based Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives introduced plans to implement smart farming to 4,500 Thai communities. AI and ML-infused sensors provide insights from data collected to identify anomalies or deficiencies and devise interventions to improve crop yields with respect to soil, temperature, rainfall, and humidity.392
Use of AI in Agriculture
Agriculture plays a crucial role in Thailand’s economy. Thailand’s 20-year national strategy for agriculture, known as the Agriculture and Cooperative Strategy (2017 to 2036) by the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, aims to transform Thailand’s agriculture sector by incorporating technology and focusing on smart agriculture. Some areas in which AI and technology can be harnessed include weather forecasting, pest monitoring, and the analysis of plant growth. In 2019, the National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), a government research agency, developed a smart agricultural system for greenhouses that was capable of monitoring key environmental variables and controlling irrigation accordingly. This increased the efficiency of farmers and allowed for labor and other resources to be more efficiently deployed.
In the private sector, companies have also created technological solutions that have facilitated smart farming. Ricult, a Thai start-up, utilizes AI and ML to analyze weather patterns and advise farmers on how to increase crop yield.393 As of 2021, there were more than 400,000 farmers on the application. The company is also careful about protecting the personal data of farmers, and has sought the consent of farmers before allowing such information to be released to banks, insurance companies, and crop buyers. ListenField is another similar agritech start-up which uses AI and ML to provide precision farming solutions to Thai farmers that allow them to cut operational costs and predict crop yield.394
Neural networks, an advanced type of ML algorithm, were also deployed to classify satellite images to improve Thailand’s statistical information to map poverty. The use of neural networks improved the granularity of government-published poverty statistics, which traditional data sourcing techniques like survey responses cannot fully capture.395 The availability of granular data helped inform more localized policies and strategies to improve poverty alleviation programs.396
As part of Khon Kaen’s Smart City agenda, smart devices are used to expedite the dispatch of ambulances, diagnose patients before they arrive at the hospital, and even monitor patients in intensive-care units.397 On preventive health, the city administration also plans to distribute smart wristbands to monitor and collect health data from citizens and to provide medical options or advice.
At the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Thai government relied on AI-backed technologies provided by Thai mobile operators Advanced Info Service and True Corp.398 Thailand’s two large telcos installed 5G networks in over 158 hospitals based all over Thailand, providing critical support for medical personnel. The 5G coverage allowed medical facilities to conduct telemedicine, while the use of 5G-powered robots meant doctors and patients did not have to come into direct contact.399
As in Malaysia and Singapore, AI is also helping Thailand’s courts go digital. During the pandemic, the increase of remote court hearings for civil and criminal cases prompted the judiciary to explore the use of AI to support in-court or out-of-court settlements.400 Supreme Court President Slaikate Wattanapan is considering the use of ML algorithms to perform probabilistic analysis, based on hundreds of laws and previous court cases, in order to hand down court rulings.401
AI is also expected to aid the work of judges, providing administrative support, collecting statistics, and monitoring the progress of cases due to possible backlogs.402 However, the integration of AI software as part of a growing wave of predictive justice in Southeast Asia is problematic, given existing concerns over its ability to fairly and transparently adjudicate.
Challenges and Prospects
With its Smart Thailand vision, the country’s dependence on AI technologies will only continue to accelerate. But as AI gains more traction, its disruptive effects will inevitably become more visible. Key challenges relating to job displacement and digital capacity already are on the horizon, but equally concerning are the governance issues that have long-term and systemic implications for justice, equity, and surveillance. These disruptions will challenge the Thai government to ensure the realization of its promises of inclusion, equality, and sustainability in its economic agenda.403
The Thailand Development Research Institute (TDRI) estimates that 8.3 million Thais or approximately 70 percent in high-risk occupations will be replaced by AI. Thailand’s unskilled workers will be the first casualties of widespread automation and adoption of robotics. The National Labor Development Advisory Council estimates that 16.9 million unskilled workers or 45 percent of the total workforce could lose their jobs to digitalized machines.404
Although a study from the International Labor Organization (ILO) predicts that the probability of automation is still lowest in Thailand (44 percent) compared to its ASEAN neighbors, the gradual adoption of AI-powered robots and automation is in fact likely to skyrocket in the next five to 10 years.405 Early signs of digitalization in Thailand have already begun, including the use of robotic process automation or bot software to automate simpler routine tasks in human resources and accounting, as well as intelligent process automation that assists humans in performing repetitive and manual tasks.406 With the increasing availability of off-the-shelf AI technologies, combined with the rapid integration of robots and automation, the transformation of the country’s major industrial assembly-line is almost certain looking ahead into the next decade.407
More positively, AI disruption in Thailand could lead to the creation of new jobs fit for the digital era. In a study commissioned by Microsoft-IDC, it was found that 30 percent of jobs will be outsourced, automated, or made obsolete, but an equal number of new roles in the workforce will also be created.408 If upskilling or reskilling programs are properly implemented under job transformation programs, an additional 35 percent of new jobs will also be retained.409 But whether AI adoption in Thailand will result in job turbulence or job transformation will depend on the overall readiness and AI-preparedness of both its younger and older population.410 Findings suggest that the younger segment of the population is more open to accepting automation, while the older generation is less inclined to embrace technological change.411 Reconciling such differences will be critical given Thailand’s ageing demographic.
More alarming in the job displacement trend is the insecurity of women involved in low-skilled jobs. The ILO asserts that women will feel the pinch more compared to their male counterparts.412 The current lack of women’s access to STEM education and training opportunities already puts them at a disadvantage when it comes to higher-skilled positions. With the dawn of automation, employment prospects for women in new growth areas will only continue to deteriorate if not addressed urgently.413
Inclusion and inequity
The disruptive effects of AI have also raised a wide range of ethical and governance considerations, especially with the risks of surveillance and discrimination. The propensity to embed smart technologies in the mundane routines of the Thai population has been viewed with skepticism because of the intense digital scrutiny of Malay-Muslim minorities located in Pattani, Yala, Narathiwat provinces, and the four districts of Songkhla province in southern Thailand.414
Human rights activists and academics argue that advanced technologies like AI are expected to aid the government in amplifying its counter-insurgency strategies.415 It was reported that 8,200 AI-powered surveillance cameras were installed to help authorities monitor risk and safety in southern Thailand. This follows the government’s many documented initiatives of state surveillance. For instance, facial recognition systems were used in the mandatory SIM card registration of Malay-Muslim communities in Pattani.416 In the aftermath of the insurgency in 2012, Thai security forces also established a DNA databank collecting DNA samples of suspects, a practice tantamount to ethnic profiling, exacerbating alienation and complicating efforts at consolidating national unity for the long term.417
The effects of surveillance could, in turn, lead to the fragmentation of the social contract and weaken trust between the state and its public.418 Critics warn of a new “digital panopticon” in Thailand characterized by a “geography of fear based on systemic inclusion and exclusion of particular groups of population.”419
Additionally, as Thailand continues on a trajectory of increasing adoption of smart applications—from wearable health wristbands to smart censors— there is also the risk that the government could extend its surveillance reach to protesters in other parts of the country, if ongoing political trends persist.420
Gaps in the AI ethical guidelines
On the surface, Thailand’s AI ethical guidelines manage to address looming governance issues relating to surveillance, monitoring, inclusivity, fairness, transparency, and accountability. But upon closer examination, the guidelines reveal a subordination of ethics to improving the country’s economic competitiveness. Soraj Hongladarom’s critical assessment of the AI ethical guidelines uncovers a glaring bias towards the private sector. This means that the top priority of the guidelines is to ensure industry’s compliance to international standards at the expense of public safety and protection.421
Hongladarom argues that the formulation of the national ethical guidelines is deeply rooted in policymakers attempting to project an image of Thailand being in lockstep with the international community, given recent releases of AI ethical guidelines across the globe. Such a move favors industrialization, premised upon the “import of technological innovation” through “less-skilled local manpower resources”, over protecting against the long-term risks of AI to the public. Even more worrying, according to Hongladarom, is that not only do the guidelines fail to clarify how the government can provide concrete support to Thais in understanding the risks associated with AI, but it also even puts the onus on the populace to find out the full ramifications of AI adoption.422
The lack of genuine public involvement in drafting the guidelines should not come as a surprise, as consultation sessions and hearings only involved selected representatives from academia, government officials and the private sector. As a result, much of the document sought to benefit developers and manufacturers, which consequently sidelined critical discussions on privacy. For instance, although Principle Four in the guidelines states that “AI systems should be designed with the principle that seeks to protect personal data in mind,” Hongladarom contends that the emphasis in the clause is directed towards developers rather than the public, whose privacy is a guaranteed right under Thailand’s constitution. In prioritizing industry and not the public interest, the guidelines only act as a façade rather than a strong foundation for Thailand’s homegrown technological capabilities and the protection of the public interest.423
A silver lining to these caveats about Thailand’s AI ethical guidelines is that it is considered a living document, subject to further revision. There is still an opportunity to check the influence of the private sector, mostly comprising established large ICT companies, over the framework. Reviewing the ethical guidelines may help course correct Bangkok’s current direction to become more inclusive and responsive to public concerns about privacy and security. A critical starting point would be raising awareness and literacy and building trust among Thais.
During stakeholder consultations, an informant suggested that many local start-ups still lack awareness of how to implement the ethical guidelines. Despite the early successes of the Thai AI ecosystem, the notion of incorporating ethics is only a recent phenomenon. The local start-up community needs more persuasion to consider ethics as fundamental to the very onset of the AI development cycle, rather than an element to be tacked on later. Established tech companies could be potential sources of guidance on ethical frameworks, but the tools they provide may require modifications to suit Thailand’s unique context.424
Erosion of public trust
Informants also cautioned about limited public understanding of AI bias.425 Deep distrust among the public toward law enforcement and government officials borne of perceptions of corruption has led to a ready embrace of technology as a solution to arbitrary decision-making.426 One informant shared that the majority of the Thai population supports the idea of using AI applications in their judicial system because of an existing distrust of judges. As a result, there is a misconception among Thais that AI-based judicial decisions are more predictable and consistent compared to those of actual human judges, without fully recognizing that AI can potentially perpetuate the same biases in existing datasets.427
Migrating to AI platforms will not allay the public’s distrust if the data to be fed to AI/ML models are still far from complete or impartial.428 As pointed out in the data governance chapter on Thailand, the digitization of documents in local and state government agencies remains a challenge because of complications with machine readability and documentation formatting. These technical hurdles end up affecting the quality of data relied on to develop AI/ML models and software applications, whether to adjudicate court cases or contribute to data analytics that will drive public policies.
Fundamentally, there is a growing dissonance between the public’s expectations surrounding AI and its limitations. This, in part, can be attributed to the siloed and technocratic approach taken by the government and the private sector. Additionally, rising state surveillance could impinge upon privacy concerns as well as the public’s (mis)perception of the possibilities and constraints of AI tools.
Restoring trust between the government, private sector, and the public will be critical for Thailand’s smooth voyage in the AI sphere. To do so, it could draw lessons from the early years of its AI development when the country championed deep collaboration between the government and universities, as well as community-driven initiatives like CyberBrain.
These bottom-up initiatives should be complementary to the existing high-level, government-led projects under Thailand 4.0. Digital literacy and job reskilling are being addressed through various public-private partnerships.429 But beyond just discovering the next unicorn or raising capital, programs that promote AI ethics during the incubation process of establishing start-ups should be encouraged, especially among younger tech founders and enthusiasts.430
Bangkok remains an attractive venue to host multistakeholder and multilateral engagements on the ethical, legal, and social implications of emerging technologies like AI, big data, and robotics. In 2019, Thailand hosted the Conference on the Ethics of Science and Technology and Sustainable Development, which included several UNESCO-led events such as the public meetings of the International Bioethics Committee and the World Commission on the Ethics of Science Knowledge and Technology.431
Supported by academia and the private sector, these international events could serve as a conduit for the government and civil society to re-engage and to discuss sensitive issues on surveillance, privacy, and security. As much as possible, the general outcomes of these discussions should be made public to cultivate an atmosphere of trust and transparency. If executed properly, this could pave the way for more productive dialogue between the government and civil society.
Thailand’s AI narrative can no longer just rely on its digital economic success. The focus on AI’s transformative power is shifting to its real-world causes and effects as well as how those will, in turn, impact the social fabric of Thailand’s emerging digital society. With increasing awareness among Thais about their digital rights, plus growing concerns about state surveillance and discrimination, a trust deficit is looming over the government’s plans for a Smart Thailand. Mustering public support will be crucial to the continuing viability of Thailand 4.0.
Although imperfect, the anticipated enforcement of the PDPA is a significant step toward safeguarding the protection of personal data. With AI’s rising prevalence in citizens’ day-to-day activities, full enforcement of the PDPA could mitigate anxieties about the collection of DNA samples or biometric data under broad and often vague justifications of national security. It could also preserve user trust when transacting online or using e-government platforms. However, it remains to be seen whether the implementation of the PDPA in June 2022 will narrow this widening trust deficit.
As digital economies become highly interconnected, Thailand’s promulgation of the PDPA and AI ethical guidelines signals its interest and willingness to join the ranks of highly advanced countries aiming to become fair and equitable data-driven economies. Yet details on the ground appear to undermine or contradict Bangkok’s ambition. Without the political will to implement robust governance frameworks, Thailand 4.0 will remain an aspiration that benefits only a few while marginalizing others. Thailand should find a viable middle path of adhering to international standards while embracing a fit-for-purpose AI ethical standards and data protection regime that will best serve its local context.
357 Asanee Kawtrakul and Prasong Praneetpolgrang, “A History of AI Research and Development in Thailand: Three Periods, Three Directions,” AI Magazine (Summer 2014): 83-92. https://ojs.aaai.org/index.php/aimagazine/article/view/2522/2430.
358 “Policy Council Approved the 2023-2027 Policy and Strategy for Higher Education, Science, Research and Innovation,” Office of National Higher Education Science Research and Innovation Council, July 27, 2021, https://www.nxpo.or.th/th/en/8320/.
360 “Thailand National AI Strategy and Action Plan,” OECD.AI Policy Observatory, accessed June 6, 2022, https://oecd.ai/en/dashboards/policy-initiatives/http:%2F%2Faipo.oecd.org%2F2021-data-policyInitiatives-27299.
362 Suchit Leesa-Nguansuk, “Nectec Head Targets National AI Strategy,” Bangkok Post, March 15, 2022, https://www.bangkokpost.com/tech/2279251/nectec-head-targets-national-ai-strategy.
363 “The 20-Year National Strategic Plan,” Thai Health 2017, accessed June 6, 2022, https://www.hiso.or.th/hiso/picture/reportHealth/ThaiHealth2017/eng2017_16.pdf.
364 National Strategy 2018-2037 (Unofficial translation), Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board, Office of the Prime Minister, accessed June 6, 2022, 2, http://nscr.nesdb.go.th/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/National-Strategy-Eng-Final-25-OCT-2019.pdf.
365 Ibid., 38.
366 The Twelfth National Economic and Social Development Plan (2017-2021), Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board, Office of the Prime Minister, accessed June 6, 2022, https://www.oneplanetnetwork.org/sites/default/files/thailand_national_economic_and_social_development_plan_nesdp.pdf.
367 Alita Sharon, “Thailand Drafts Ethics Guidelines for AI,” OpenGovAsia, November 4, 2019, https://opengovasia.com/thailand-drafts-ethics-guidelines-for-ai/.
370 Suchit Leesa-Nguansuk, “National AI Ethics Going to Cabinet,” Bangkok Post, November 17, 2020, https://www.bangkokpost.com/tech/2020635/national-ai-ethics-going-to-cabinet.
371 “Agenda 2: Development of Technology Cluster and Future Industries,” Royal Thai Embassy, Washington, D.C., accessed June 6, 2022, https://thaiembdc.org/agenda-2-development-of-technology-cluster-and-future-industries/.
372 Suchit Leesa-Nguansuk, “Powering Up on AI,” Bangkok Post, January 21, 2019, https://www.bangkokpost.com/tech/1614790/powering-up-on-ai.
373 “AI and Robotics Growing Rapidly in Thailand,” Royal Thai Embassy, Washington, D.C., accessed June 6, 2022, https://thaiembdc.org/2021/04/28/ai-and-robotics-growing-rapidly-in-thailand/.
376 Alita Sharon, “The Future and Adoption Strategies of AI in Thailand,” OpenGovAsia, January 21, 2019, https://opengovasia.com/the-future-and-adoption-strategies-of-ai-in-thailand/.
377 “Thailand: A Vision for the Future,” Forbes, October 31, 2018, https://www.forbes.com/custom/2018/10/30/thailand-a-vision-for-the-future/.
378 “Developing ASEAN’s Smart Cities,” The ASEAN Post, January 24, 2021, https://theaseanpost.com/article/developing-thailands-smart-cities#:~:text=Several%20cities%20in%20seven%20provinces,Rayong%2C%20Bangkok%2C%20and%20Chachoengsao.
379 “Thailand: A Vision for the Future.”
380 “New Research Center Aims to Offer Readymade AI Solutions to All Sectors,” The Nation, April 8, 2022, https://www.nationthailand.com/pr-news/business/40014357.
382 Joe Devanesan, “How IBM is Boosting AI Automation for SMEs Across Thailand,” Tech Wire Asia, July 16, 2020, https://techwireasia.com/2020/07/how-ibm-is-boosting-ai-automation-for-smes-across-thailand/.
383 Asanee Kawtrakul and Prasong Praneetpolgrang, “A History of AI Research and Development in Thailand,” 84.
384 Ibid., 84 – 85.
385 Ibid., 84.
386 Ibid., 87-89.
387 Ibid., 91.
388 Ibid., 91.
389 “Thailand Embraces Artificial Intelligence,” Rebellion Research, July 6, 2020, https://blog.rebellionresearch.com/blog/thailand-embraces-artificial-intelligence.
391 Asanee Kawtrakul and Prasong Praneetpolgrang, “A History of AI Research and Development in Thailand.”
392 “Why Thailand Plans to Invest Billions in Smart Farming Initiatives in 2020,” Tech Wire Asia, November 13, 2019, https://techwireasia.com/2019/11/why-thailand-is-investing-in-smart-farming-in-2020/.
393 Christine Tan, “Thailand Start-Up Says It’s Boosting Crop Yields with App for Farmers,” CNBC, November 28, 2021, https://www.cnbc.com/2021/11/29/thailand-start-up-ricult-has-mobile-app-designed-to-boost-crop-yields.html.
394 Ashim Neupane, “Alum Determined to Change Thai Farming Landscape with Technology,” Asian Institute of Technology, July 26, 2020, https://www.ait.ac.th/2020/07/ait-alum-determined-to-change-thai-farming-landscape-with-technology/.
395 Mapping Poverty through Data Integration and Artificial Intelligence, Asia Development Bank, September 2020, 35, https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/630406/mapping-poverty-ki2020-supplement.pdf.
396 Mapping Poverty through Data Integration and Artificial Intelligence, 36.
397 Nqaba Matshazi, “Thai City, Khon Khaen Launches Innovative Smart Health Solutions,” Healthcare Weekly, November 8, 2018, https://healthcareweekly.com/khon-kaen-launches-innovative-smart-health-solutions/.
398 Joe Devanesan, “Thailand Soars Ahead with 5G Rollout in Southeast Asia,” Tech Wire Asia, June 11, 2020, https://techwireasia.com/2020/06/thailand-soars-ahead-with-5g-rollout-in-southeast-asia/.
399 Suchit Leesa-Nguansuk, Lamonphet Apisitniran, and Ranjana Wangvipula, “Tech to Offer Better Health Outcomes,” Bangkok Post, October 2, 2021, https://www.bangkokpost.com/business/2191111/tech-to-offer-better-health-outcomes.
400 Sean Nolan, “Tech on Trial: Digital Tools in Thailand’s Courts,” GovInsider, November 12, 2021, https://govinsider.asia/intelligence/tech-on-trial-digital-tools-in-thailands-courts-office-of-the-judiciary-thailand/.
401 Nattaya Chetchotiros, “Let Humans Judge, Not AI,” Bangkok Post, November 25, 2019, https://www.bangkokpost.com/thailand/general/1801274/let-humans-judge-not-ai.
403 “Thailand 4.0: In Sight but Not in Reach,” Economist Intelligence, November 16, 2017, https://country.eiu.com/article.aspx?articleid=1746126758&Country=Thailand&topic=Economy.
404 Eijas Ariffin, “Disruptive Technology Could Cost Thai Jobs,” The ASEAN Post, October 31, 2018, https://theaseanpost.com/article/disruptive-technology-could-cost-thai-jobs.
405 Jae-Hee Chang and Phu Huynh, ASEAN in Transformation: The Future of Jobs at Risk of Automation, Geneva: ILO, 2016, 16, https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_dialogue/---act_emp/documents/publication/wcms_579554.pdf.
406 “Labour Risks Going Under Amid AI Wave,” Bangkok Post, November 27, 2017, https://www.bangkokpost.com/tech/1367471/labour-risks-going-under-amid-ai-wave.
407 Rachaniphorn Ngotngamwong, “Artificial Intelligence and Its Impacts on Employability,” Human Behavior, Development and Society 21, no. 2 (June 2020), https://so01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/hbds/article/download/230753/164140/.
408 Thornthawat Thongnab, “Microsoft Showcases AI Capabilities in Thailand, Sets Stage for Platform Leadership to Empower Every Person and Organization,” Microsoft, November 28, 2018, https://news.microsoft.com/th-th/2018/11/28/futurenow_ai_en/.
410 Rachaniphorn Ngotngamwong, “Artificial Intelligence and Its Impacts on Employability.
412 Jae-Hee Chang and Phu Huynh, ASEAN in Transformation: The Future of Jobs at Risk of Automation, Geneva: ILO, 2016, 20.
413 Ibid., 5
414 Umair Jamal, “Understanding the Thai Military’s Use of AI for Surveillance against Malay Muslims,” ASEAN Today, May 26, 2021, https://www.aseantoday.com/2020/12/understanding-the-thai-militarys-use-of-ai-for-surveillance-against-malay-muslims/.
415 Gerard McDermott, “Thailand’s Creeping Digital Authoritarianism,” The Diplomat, February 17, 2021, https://thediplomat.com/2021/02/thailands-creeping-digital-authoritarianism/.
416 Chanatip Tatiyakaroonwong, “The Patani Panopticon: Biometrics in Thailand’s Deep South,” New Mandala, May 27, 2020, https://www.newmandala.org/the-patani-panopticon-biometrics-in-thailands-deep-south/.
418 Jonathan Shaw, “The Watchers: Assaults on Privacy in America,” Harvard Magazine, January-February 2017, https://www.harvardmagazine.com/2017/01/the-watchers.
419 Pinkaew Laungaramsri, “Mass Surveillance and the Militarization of Cyberspace in Post-Coup Thailand,” Austrian Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 9, no. 2 (2016): 210, https://aseas.univie.ac.at/index.php/aseas/article/view/2648.
420 Gerard McDermott, “Thailand’s Creeping Digital Authoritarianism.”
421 Sonraj Hongladarom, “The Thailand National AI Ethics Guideline: An Analysis,” Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 19, no. 4 (2021): 488, https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/JICES-01-2021-0005/full/html.
423 Sonraj Hongladarom, “The Thailand National AI Ethics Guideline: An Analysis,” 489.
424 Stakeholder consultation.
425 Stakeholder consultation.
426 Stakeholder consultation.
427 Stakeholder consultation.
428 Stakeholder consultation.
429 Thornthawat Thongnab, “Microsoft Showcases AI Capabilities in Thailand.”
430 “Invitation to Apply for Funding for ‘Youth-led Projects in AI Ethics,” UNESCO Bangkok, June 7, 2021, https://bangkok.unesco.org/content/invitation-apply-funding-youth-led-projects-ai-ethics.
431 “Ethics of S&T,” Office of National Higher Education Science Research and Innovation Council, accessed June 6, 2021, https://www.nxpo.or.th/th/en/ethics-of-st/.