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ນິຍາມ

See Affected People for information about the individuals, families, and communities that are in and around project site(s) and either may be or are affected by a BRI project.

ນິຍາມ

A think-and-do tank designed to bring about changes that incorporate the best ideas from top experts in Asia and to work with policy makers to integrate these ideas and put them into practice. For more than 60 years, the Asia Society has built bridges and helped solve problems within the Asia-Pacific region and between Asia and the wider world. With a solution-oriented mandate, ASPI expands this mission by tackling major policy challenges in security, prosperity, and sustainability, and by helping develop common norms and values for the region. Learn more about our work on China's BRI.

ນິຍາມ

An inter-governmental organization of ten Southeast Asian countries: Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.

ນິຍາມ

A company owned by the Chinese Government and administered by the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission (SASAC). See Chinese Developers, Contractors, and Subcontractors for information about their possible roles and responsibilities in BRI projects, as well as major CSOEs involved in infrastructure development.

ນິຍາມ

See Chinese Industry Associations for information about their possible roles and responsibilities in BRI projects, as well as contact details for Chinese chambers of commerce in Cambodia, Indonesia, and Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR).

ນິຍາມ

For-profit legal entities registered in China, as well as overseas companies wholly owned or controlled by these legal entities.

(ບັນດາ)ແຫຼ່ງທີ່ມາ

Adapted from SynTao and China International Contractors Association (CHINCA), “Community Engagement Handbook for Chinese International Contractors (2021 Edition)-北京商道纵横信息科技有限责任公司,” 2021, View the Website.

ນິຍາມ

See Chinese Government for information about the possible roles and responsibilities of Chinese regulators, ministries, agencies, and bodies in BRI projects.

ນິຍາມ

A non-profit, voluntary group that is organized on the local, national, regional, or international level. See Civil Society Organizations (CSOs)/Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) for information about the different types of organizations that could be or are already involved in BRI projects.

(ບັນດາ)ແຫຼ່ງທີ່ມາ

Adapted from SynTao and China International Contractors Association (CHINCA), “Community Engagement Handbook for Chinese International Contractors (2021 Edition)-北京商道纵横信息科技有限责任公司,” 2021, View the Website; United Nations (UN), “About Us,” United Nations (United Nations), accessed in 2022, View the Website.

ນິຍາມ

The ruling political party of modern China.

ນິຍາມ

In terms of physical space, refers to a group of people gathered in the same geographical space and area, with common needs, interests, beliefs, and values, who are relatively cohesive and have lasting relationships. In terms of non-physical space, community refers to a group of people who share a sense of identity and communality in the group spirit and who are committed to a common goal. Communities can overlap or be separated in physical and psychological space. At the same time, a community can have both a broad and a narrow sense. The broad sense of community includes the host country government, the public, media, researchers/experts, and civil society organizations (CSOs)/nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the BRI host country. Meanwhile, the narrow sense of community refers only to stakeholders within project areas of influence

(ບັນດາ)ແຫຼ່ງທີ່ມາ

Adapted from SynTao and China International Contractors Association (CHINCA), “Community Engagement Handbook for Chinese International Contractors (2021 Edition)-北京商道纵横信息科技有限责任公司,” 2021, View the Website.

ນິຍາມ

People who are employed or engaged in providing community labor.

(ບັນດາ)ແຫຼ່ງທີ່ມາ

Adapted from World Bank, "World Bank Environmental and Social Framework," Washington, DC, 2016, View the PDF.

ນິຍາມ

People who are employed or engaged through contractors, subcontractors, brokers, or intermediaries to perform work related to core functions of a project.

(ບັນດາ)ແຫຼ່ງທີ່ມາ

Adapted from World Bank, "World Bank Environmental and Social Framework," Washington, DC, 2016, View the PDF.

ນິຍາມ

A company that undertakes a contract to provide materials or labor to build a project or a component of a project. This company may outsource some of its obligations or tasks to a subcontractor. See Chinese Developers, Contractors, and Subcontractors for more information about their possible roles and responsibilities in BRI projects.

ນິຍາມ

People employed or engaged directly by the developer and its implementing agencies to work specifically in relation to a project.

(ບັນດາ)ແຫຼ່ງທີ່ມາ

Adapted from World Bank, "World Bank Environmental and Social Framework," Washington, DC, 2016, View the PDF.

ນິຍາມ

A body that is responsible for assembling a panel of scientific/technical experts, selecting a specific expert, or engaging representatives of relevant government agencies to review the environmental and social impact assessment (ESIA), environmental and social management plan (ESMP), and periodic environmental and social monitoring reports for a project. While some host countries have an independent body that serves as the ESIA authority, the host country government retains this role in other countries.

ນິຍາມ

A qualified and experienced expert or firm that facilitates the environmental and social impact assessment (ESIA) process; engages affected people and other stakeholders; and prepares the scoping study, terms of reference (ToR), ESIA report, and environmental and social management plan (ESMP). Especially for higher-risk projects, the expert’s or firm’s independence from the project and its proponents can help ensure the objectivity, accuracy, and completeness of the ESIA process.

ນິຍາມ

A company, policy bank, commercial bank, investment fund, government, or other type of financial institution that commits capital to a project, an asset, or business operations. Although BRI projects could receive funding from local, regional, or international financiers, which either operate or have a presence in host countries, see Chinese Financiers for more information about their possible roles and responsibilities in BRI projects.

(ບັນດາ)ແຫຼ່ງທີ່ມາ

Adapted from James Chen, "Investor," Investopedia, 2021, View the Website.

ນິຍາມ

See Host Country Government for information about their possible roles and responsibilities in BRI projects.

ນິຍາມ

The term (although not defined in the "United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP)") used in this toolkit in a generic sense to refer to a distinct social and cultural group possessing the following characteristics in varying degrees: self-identification as members of a distinct Indigenous group and recognition of this identity by others; collective attachment to geographically distinct habitats or ancestral territories in project areas of influence and to the natural resources in these habitats and territories; customary cultural, economic, social, or political institutions that are separate from those of the mainstream society or culture; distinct language or dialect, often different from the official language or languages of the country or region in which they reside; and a resolve to maintain and reproduce their ancestral environments and systems as distinctive peoples and communities

Since Indigenous peoples may have distinct community systems or structures, companies may need to adopt separate approaches for informing and consulting these communities. Indigenous peoples may face different risks — and to different degrees — including the loss of communal identity, culture, traditional lands, and livelihoods dependent on natural resources. 

Host countries may use different terms, such as “ethnic groups” and “tribes,” to refer to Indigenous peoples. These countries may also have special legal, statutory, and/or regulatory requirements for engagement with Indigenous peoples. 

(ບັນດາ)ແຫຼ່ງທີ່ມາ

Adapted from Equator Principles Association (EPA), "The Equator Principles 4," 2020, View the PDF; SynTao and China International Contractors Association (CHINCA), “Community Engagement Handbook for Chinese International Contractors (2021 Edition)-北京商道纵横信息科技有限责任公司,” 2021, View the Website; United Nations (UN), "United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues: Who are indigenous peoples?," accessed in 2022, View the PDF.

ນິຍາມ

Organizations that support — and protect the rights of — companies and employers in specific industries. See Chinese Industry Associations for information about their possible roles and responsibilities in BRI projects.

ນິຍາມ

A company or another institution that provides insurance. See Chinese Insurers for more information about their possible roles and responsibilities in BRI projects.

ນິຍາມ

International banking, investment, and insurance institutions that provide lending, investment, insurance, or other financial products and services.

(ບັນດາ)ແຫຼ່ງທີ່ມາ

Adapted from Sustainable Finance Advisory, "Environmental and Social Risk Due Diligence in the Financial Sector: Current Approaches and Practices," 2013, View the PDF.

ນິຍາມ

A supply of capital belonging to numerous investors used to collectively purchase securities. While each investor retains ownership and control of their own shares, the fund provides a wider range of investment opportunities, greater management expertise, and lower fees than investors might be able to obtain on their own. See Investment Funds to learn more about major funds affiliated with the BRI.

(ບັນດາ)ແຫຼ່ງທີ່ມາ

Adapted from James Chen, "Investment Fund," Investopedia, 2020, View the Website.

ນິຍາມ

A person who gathers, evaluates, writes about, presents, and/or publicizes the news and information related to proposed and ongoing projects. See Media for information about journalists’ possible roles and responsibilities in BRI projects.

ນິຍາມ

A policy bank, commercial bank, investment fund, company, or other entity that makes funds available to a developer or contractor with the expectation that the funds will be repaid. Repayment often includes the payment of any interest or fees.

(ບັນດາ)ແຫຼ່ງທີ່ມາ

Adapted from Adam Barone, "Lender," Investopedia, 2022, View the Website.

ນິຍາມ

A company owned by a local government in China or one of the State-owned Asset Supervision and Administration Commissions (SASACs) at the provincial level and below.

ນິຍາມ

See Media for information about their possible roles and responsibilities in BRI projects.

ນິຍາມ

A person trained to facilitate discussions between the two sides involved in a dispute and help them try to reach an agreement. Mediators must be neutral, meaning that they act fairly and do not favor any party to the negotiations.

(ບັນດາ)ແຫຼ່ງທີ່ມາ

Adapted from Inclusive Development International (IDI), "Community Guide to the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank," 2020, View the PDF.

ນິຍາມ

People who have migrated from China, another country, or another part of the host country to work on a project.

(ບັນດາ)ແຫຼ່ງທີ່ມາ

Adapted from World Bank, "World Bank Environmental and Social Framework," Washington, DC, 2016, View the PDF.

ນິຍາມ

See Ministry of Finance (MOF) for specific information about this ministry within the Chinese Government.

ນິຍາມ

Groups of people who constitute less than half of the population in the host country. Members of these groups share common characteristics of culture, religion, or language or a combination of any of these. A person can freely belong to an ethnic, religious, or linguistic minority without any requirement of citizenship, residence, official recognition, or any other status. A common reference point for the international community regarding the rights of these minorities is the "United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities."

(ບັນດາ)ແຫຼ່ງທີ່ມາ

Adapted from United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), "Concept of a minority: mandate definition," accessed in 2022, View the Website.

ນິຍາມ

A supranational financial institution chartered by a group of countries. All member countries are shareholders, acting as creditors and/or borrowers. MDBs fund large infrastructure projects, offer loans tied to policy reforms, and provide other forms of financial assistance to developing countries in order to promote economic and social development

(ບັນດາ)ແຫຼ່ງທີ່ມາ

Adapted from Inclusive Development International (IDI), "Community Guide to the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank," 2020, View the PDF; European Investment Bank (EIB), "Multilateral development banks," accessed in 2022, View the Website; Congressional Research Service (CRS), "Multilateral Development Banks: Overview and Issues for Congress," 2020, View the PDF; Rebecca Ray, "Who Controls Multilateral Development Finance?," 2019, View the PDF.

ນິຍາມ

A company with facilities and other assets in different countries.

(ບັນດາ)ແຫຼ່ງທີ່ມາ

Adapted from James Chen, "Multinational Corporation (MNC)," Investopedia, 2022, View the Website.

ນິຍາມ

People who are employed or engaged by the developer's primary suppliers of materials or goods for a project on an ongoing basis.

(ບັນດາ)ແຫຼ່ງທີ່ມາ

Adapted from World Bank, "World Bank Environmental and Social Framework," Washington, DC, 2016, View the PDF.

ນິຍາມ

A business that is managed by an independent company or private individual — rather than the Chinese Government or the host country government. While these companies may issue stock and have shareholders, their shares are not listed on public exchanges.

(ບັນດາ)ແຫຼ່ງທີ່ມາ

Adapted from James Chen, "Private Company," Investopedia, 2022, View the Website.

ນິຍາມ

An entity that has primary responsibility for a project.

ນິຍາມ

People employed or engaged directly by the developer, people employed or engaged through contractors and subcontractors to perform work related to core functions of the project, people employed or engaged by the developer’s and/or contractor's primary suppliers, and people employed or engaged in providing community labor. Project workers may reside in project areas of influence, move from another part of the host country, come from China, or migrate from other countries. These workers may operate on a full-time, part-time, temporary, or seasonal basis. 

(ບັນດາ)ແຫຼ່ງທີ່ມາ

Adapted from World Bank, "World Bank Environmental and Social Framework," Washington, DC, 2016, View the PDF; Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), "Environmental and Social Framework," 2021, View the PDF.

ນິຍາມ

See Researchers/Experts for information about their possible roles and responsibilities in BRI projects.

ນິຍາມ

A person, company, or institution that owns at least one share of a company’s stock, known as equity.

(ບັນດາ)ແຫຼ່ງທີ່ມາ

Adapted from Adam Hayes, "Shareholder," Investopedia, 2021, View the Website.

ນິຍາມ

Businesses that maintain revenues, assets, or a number of employees below certain thresholds. Each country has its own definitions of SMEs and MSMEs.

(ບັນດາ)ແຫຼ່ງທີ່ມາ

Adapted from Daniel Liberto, "Small and Mid-size Enterprise (SME)," Investopedia, 2021, View the Website.

ນິຍາມ

Individuals, groups, or organizations that are influenced by and/or could have an impact on pre-project planning, project implementation, and project operations. Their participation in and/or connection to a project may be direct or indirect. See Stakeholders for more information about actors that could be involved in BRI projects.

ນິຍາມ

A legal entity that is created by a government to engage in commercial activities on the government's behalf. The government could either wholly or partially own it. SOEs from both China and host countries could be involved in any given BRI project. 

(ບັນດາ)ແຫຼ່ງທີ່ມາ

Adapted from Will Kenton, “State-Owned Enterprise (SOE),” 2020, Investopedia, View the Website.

ນິຍາມ

A company that is contracted to perform part or all of another company’s contract for a project. See Chinese Developers, Contractors, and Subcontractors for more information about their possible roles and responsibilities in BRI projects.

ນິຍາມ

Applies to those who, by virtue of factors beyond their control, may be more likely to be adversely affected by a project and/or may be more limited than others in their ability to take advantage of the project’s benefits. These individuals or groups are also more likely to be excluded from or unable to participate fully in the mainstream stakeholder consultation process, so they may require specific measures and/or assistance to ensure their views are taken into consideration. Examples of these groups include, but are not limited to, women; the elderly; children and youth; people with disabilities; Indigenous peoples; ethnic, linguistic, and religious minorities; refugees; and displaced populations.

(ບັນດາ)ແຫຼ່ງທີ່ມາ

Adapted from World Bank, "World Bank Environmental and Social Framework," Washington, DC, 2016, View the PDF; Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), "Environmental and Social Framework," 2021, View the PDF.

ນິຍາມ

See World Bank for specific information about this multilateral development bank (MDB).