About the Data

About the Data

This page contains all the pertinent information regarding the data, including sources, years, and caveats. It is organized to correspond with the listings in the map.

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Economic
Education
Demographic


ECONOMIC DATA

Companies Importing and Exporting Goods: Number of Companies, Number of Employees, and Estimated Sales Value
Source: Datamyne, http://www.datamyne.com

This is data on companies that import and export goods internationally. This data is for one year spanning June 2014–May 2015. For each U.S. state or county, see the total number of local employees, the total sales volume (in USD), and the total number of importing and/or exporting companies. Also provided is the same data grouped according to whether the parent companies are U.S. or foreign owned. In some cases, a company is included in the "Number of Companies" count but not in other fields, because no data was available on trade volume or number of employees. Some U.S. cities and census areas are included in the county-level data because they are independent of any county. This data is based on shipping bills and includes only those goods shipped by cargo ships.

Jobs Related to Services Exports and Value of Services Exports
Source: Estimated by The Trade Partnership (Washington, DC) http://www.tradepartnership.com/index.html

This data set gives the estimated value (in USD) of exported services by sector and the estimated number of direct jobs tied to those exports. The goods data are from 2015 and services data are from 2014. Below are the codes used for each service sector.

CODE Industry
BPT Business, Professional, and Technical Services
FINSERV Financial Services
INSUR Insurance Services
MAIN Installation, Maintenance, and Repair
ROYAL Royalties
TCI Telecommunications, Computer, and Information Services
TRANS Transportation Services
TRAV Travel Services

State services exports estimates are drawn from two primary sources: (1) detailed U.S. services export data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis, and (2) state-level, value-added output data for U.S. services sectors from Moody’s Analytics. For certain services export categories that would be associated with a range of producing sectors (e.g., industrial processes and research and development), industry data published by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service and the National Science Foundation is used to supplement the primary sources. County-level estimates are drawn from valued-added output data from Moody’s Analytics. Estimates of the number of direct jobs tied to exports are drawn from domestic employment requirement tables from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Direct jobs tied to an industry’s exports represent jobs in that industry and are assumed to be located in the district. Some U.S. cities and census areas are included in the county-level data because they are independent of any county. In the state of Virginia, many cities counted independently by the U.S. Census are included in their nearest county.
 

Estimated Value of Exports
Source: Estimated by The Trade Partnership (Washington, DC) http://www.tradepartnership.com/index.html

This data set gives estimates of the value (in USD) of exports of goods at the county and state level. State-level data is composed of (1) state agricultural export estimates, drawn from two primary information sources, (a) detailed U.S. national export data from the U.S. Bureau of the Census (“Census”), and (b) state cash receipts data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA); and (2) state goods exports estimates, drawn from the Census as accessed through USA Trade Online. County-level data uses two data sources: (1) detailed county sales estimates from the USDA Agricultural Census (agricultural products only), and (2) county-level, valued-added output data from Moody’s Analytics. Some U.S. cities and census areas are included in the county-level data because they are independent of any county. In the state of Virginia, many cities counted independently by the U.S. Census are included in their nearest county nearest.
 

Value of Services Exports
See Estimated Value of Exports above.
 

International Student Value Data: Economic Contributions of International Students & Dependents to U.S. Economy 2014–15 
Source: NAFSA: Association of International Educators, http://www.nafsa.org/supportIE

This data shows the economic impact (in USD) of international students studying abroad in the United States. Some U.S. cities and census areas are included in the county-level data because they are independent of any county.
 

Number of International Scholars at Higher Education Institutions and Number of International Students (Undergraduate & Graduate) at Higher Education Institutions
Source: Institute of International Education, http://www.iie.org/Research-and-Publications/Open-Doors

This data represents the number of international students and scholars present in the state or county for the 2014 – 2015 academic year. The state and county totals listed are based on Open Doors(r) data provided by the Institute of International Education. Because of differences in methodology, the county totals may not sum to the state totals published in Open Doors(r). For more information on the Open Doors(r) project, visit www.iie.org/opendoors.


EDUCATION DATA
 

K–12 World Language Enrollment; Number of High Schools Offering World Languages; and Number of High School Students Enrolled in World Languages
Source: American Councils for International Education, https://www.americancouncils.org


 

Data on foreign/world languages high school programs and enrollments was collected though a census of public and private high schools in the U.S. and are presented as reported by respondent schools. State level data was reported by 29 states and estimated for the remaining states using a regression model to estimate K-12 enrollments. Data for the estimation model were also drawn from the State Submissions, Census Bureau, NCIS, and State Departments of Education. The predictors were the percent of households where languages other than English are spoken; percent of residents below the poverty line; percent of adults 25 years or older, with an educational degree of Bachelor or higher; percent of residents who indicate their race as African-American; percent of residents who indicate their ethnicity as Hispanic or Latino; regional distribution of states; state’s high school graduation requirements including world language instruction and Advanced Placement test data. This data was collected as part of the National K-12 Foreign Language Enrollment Survey. For more information on the Enrollment Survey visit https://www.americancouncils.org/FLEreport and for data on foreign language enrollments, visit https://www.americancouncils.org/flemaps

AP Exams Taken
Data provided by the College Board, http://www.collegeboard.org

This data represents the total number of high school students who took a given Advanced Placement exam (categorized by subject) in the 2014-15 school year. Internationally focused exams consist of those listed in this map: Chinese Language & Culture, European History, French Language & Culture, German Language & Culture, Human Geography, Italian Language & Culture, Japanese Language & Culture, Latin Literature, Spanish Language, Spanish Literature, and World History.

Post-Secondary Language Enrollment and Post-Secondary Language Enrollment Percent Change 2002 – 2013 
Source: Modern Language Association (accessed July 6, 2015), MLA Language Map and Language Enrollment Database, 1958 – 2013, http://www.mla.org/flsurvey_search

These data show foreign language enrollments for the year 2013 at the college and university level. Where possible, we have used the MLA data to calculate percent change in enrollments between 2002 and 20013 for each language or language group. We have combined some MLA data for distinct languages into language categories that correspond with the American Community Survey (ACS) Language Spoken at Home language classifications, with the addition of American Sign Language (not enumerated by the ACS), and certain classical and ancient languages. Data for institutions of higher education have been summarized by state and county. Some counties may contain more than one institution, while some contain none. In a few cases an institution is located in more than one county and is included at the state level, but not at the county level. Some U.S. cities and census areas are included in the county level data because they are independent of any county.

Study Abroad: High School Students Studying Abroad and Incoming International Exchange High School Students
Source: Council on Standards for International Education Travel (CSIET), http://www.csiet.org

This data represents international exchange programs at the secondary level for the 2015 – 2016 academic year. It shows the number of incoming international exchange students and the number of U.S. Students studying abroad internationally by state.

Study Abroad: U.S. Undergraduate and Graduate Students Study Abroad
Source: Institute of International Education, http://www.iie.org/Research-and-Publications/Open-Doors

The data represents the number of U.S. undergraduate and graduate students studying abroad during the 2013 – 2014 academic year. The state and county totals listed are based on Open Doors(r) data provided by the Institute of International Education. Because of differences in methodology, the county totals may not sum to the state totals published in Open Doors(r). For more information on the Open Doors(r) project, visit www.iie.org/opendoors.

Sister Cities
Source: Sister Cities International, 2013 http://www.sister-cities.org

Sister cities organize and implement exchanges in fields such as youth, education, municipal best practices, trade, and development. Partner cities include both sister cities and friendship cities. A sister city, county or state relationship is a broad-based, officially approved, long-term partnership between two municipalities in two countries. A sister city, county or state relationship is officially recognized after the highest elected or appointed official from both communities sign off on an agreement. A county may include more than one city participating in a sister city partnership. The state of Maryland has a sister city relationship with 13 other municipalities, which are included at the state level but not the county level. Some U.S. cities and census areas are included in the county-level data because they are independent of any county. This data only includes those sister cities currently registered with Sister Cities International.


DEMOGRAPHIC DATA

Total Population and Percent Change in Total Population 1990, 2000, 2010
Source: U.S. Census Bureau; Social Explorer. Data set: Social Explorer Tables (SE). Table: T1. Total Population.

These tables show total population by state and by county for the census years 1990, 2000, and 2010 and the change in population, given as raw numbers and as percentages. Some U.S. cities and census areas are included in the county-level data because they are independent of any county. Redistricting occurred in the states of Alaska and Colorado between the 1990 and 2000 census and/or between the 2000 and 2010 census. The change in population data for 2000 – 2010 accounts for these changes, but the change in population from 1990 – 2000 does not.
 

Percent of Foreign-Born Population
Data from Social Explorer Tables: ACS 2007 to 2011 (Five-Year Estimates) (SE), ACS 2007–2011 (Five-year Estimates), Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau.

These tables show (1) foreign-born population as a percentage of total population and (2) the change in percentage of the foreign-born population between 2000 and the ACS 2007 – 2011 estimate. Some U.S. cities and census areas are included in the county-level data because they are independent of any county.
 

Place of Birth: Foreign-Born Population
Data from Social Explorer Tables: ACS 2007 – 2011 (Five-year Estimates) (SE), ACS 2007 – 2011 (Five-year Estimates), Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau.

Some U.S. cities and census areas are included in the county-level data because they are independent of any county. Birthplace for the foreign-born population is summarized by continent and is shown as a percentage of the total foreign-born population for the area. Oceania includes Australia.

Ancestry
Sources: U.S. Census Bureau: Social Explorer Tables: American Community Survey (ACS) 2007 – 2011 (Five-year Estimates), Table T1. Total Population; ACS Table T138. Ancestry — Place of Origin (Total Categories Tallied) for People with One or More Ancestry Categories Reported [108]; (ACS) Tables: 2007 – 2011 (Five-year Estimates) (ACS11_5yr) Table B02011. Asian Alone or in Combination with One or More Other Races and Table B03003. Hispanic or Latino Origin.

A note on ACS Ancestry data: The numbers in this table represent the total number of ancestries reported and coded. If a person reported multiple ancestry, such as “German Danish,” that response was counted twice: once in the German category and again in the Danish category. Also, if a person reported two different types of German ancestry, such as “Bavarian Hamburger,” that person would be counted twice in the German category. In addition, both race (for example, Asian) and ethnicity (for example, Hispanic) data have been incorporated into these tables. Therefore, each number in the table represents the number of reports for that ancestry type, not the number of people reporting. For this reason, the sum of the numbers in each category will not be equal to the total population, and the percentages for each category will not equal 100 percent.

Ancestry has been summarized in the following categories:

Asian: The ACS includes Asian ancestry in the question “What is the person’s race?” This includes Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Native Hawai‘ian, Guamanian or Chamorro, Samoan, Other Pacific Islander, and Other Asian.

European: Includes Albanian, Alsatian, Austrian, Basque, Belgian, British, Bulgarian, Carpatho Rusyn, Celtic, Croatian, Cypriot, Czech, Czechoslovakian, Danish, Dutch, Eastern European, English, Estonian, European, Finnish, French (except Basque), German, Greek, Hungarian, Irish, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Luxemburger, Macedonian, Maltese, Northern European, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Scandinavian, Scotch-Irish, Scottish, Serbian, Slavic, Slovak, Slovene, Swedish, Swiss, Ukrainian, Welsh, Yugoslavian.

Hispanic or Latino: Hispanic ancestry is determined by the answer to a specific question (“Is the person of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin?”), separate from the ancestry section of the ACS.

Middle Eastern: Afghan, Arab/Arabic, Armenian, Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac, Egyptian, Iraqi, Jordanian, Lebanese, Moroccan, Palestinian, Syrian, Iranian, Israeli, Turkish, and Other Arab.

Russian: German Russian, Russian, Soviet Union.

Subsaharan African: African, Cape Verdean, Ethiopian, Ghanian, Kenyan, Liberian, Nigerian, Senegalese, Sierra Leonean, Somalian, South African, Sudanese, Ugandan, Zimbabwean, Other Subsaharan African.

Other (includes non-Hispanic ancestries of the Americas and South Pacific): American, Australian, Brazilian, Cajun, Canadian, French Canadian, Guyanese, Icelander, New Zealander, Pennsylvania German, West Indian (excluding Hispanic groups).
 

Languages Spoken at Home: Number of Speakers and Percentage Speaking
Data from Social Explorer Tables: ACS 2007 – 2011 (Five-year Estimates) (SE), ACS 2007 – 2011 (Five-year Estimates), Social Explorer; U.S. Census Bureau.

This data is taken only from the population age five and older. Some U.S. cities and census areas are included in the county-level data because they are independent of any county. At the state level, all languages and language categories from the ACS Five-year estimates are shown. At the county-level, only those languages spoken by at least five hundred people or five percent of the population are shown for each county, city, or census area. Languages are listed in alphabetical order and are shown first as raw numbers and then as a percentage of the total population.
 

Native Languages of English Language Learners
Source: Migration Policy Institute (http://www.migrationpolicy.org) tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau’s pooled 2007 – 2011 American Community Surveys

The number of individuals with Limited English Proficiency (English Language Learners, or ELL) is shown, in raw numbers, for each language spoken at home. The data includes only ELL populations of 500 or more, or populations that make up more than five percent of the total county population. Therefore, numbers may be shown for the state level but not the county level. Some U.S. cities and census areas are included in the county-level data because they are independent of any county.
 

Number of Data Points

The map contains 736,924 individual data entries. However, this does not include data generated through calculations, such as percentage change over time. The total number of data points represented is nearly one million.
 

Thank You

     

We would like to give a special thank you to The Center for International Understanding in North Carolina and the Columbus Council on World Affairs for their leadership and foresight in developing early models on which this map was based. We would also like to thank all of our partners including those who provided data (listed above) and those who gave invaluable advice, including the Center for Applied Linguistics. IREX kindly assisted in providing information for the state pages.


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