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i For many references, see Mandelbaum 1970, Roland 1988, and Jacobson and Wadley 1999.
ii Purdah is discussed in detail in Jacobson 1976, 1977, 1978, 1982, and 1992; Papanek and Minault 1982; and Mandelbaum 1988.
iii According to demographers and economists, perhaps 50 to 80 million more girls and women might be alive today in India and China if they had received treatment equal to that of males (Dugger 2001). The disadvantages of being female have been amply researched; see, for example, Miller 1981, Das Gupta and Li 1999, and Bumiller 1990. In general, census figures show lower sex ratios in northern India than in the south, but in only one state—the southern state of Kerala—are there more females than males (1,058 females per 1,000 males).
iv Much has been written about caste, untouchability, and B.R. Ambedkar. For recent overviews on changes in caste, see Fuller 1996 and U. Sharma 1999. For a focus on untouchability, see Lynch 2001, Mendelsohn and Vicziany 1998, Deliege 1999, and Zelliot 1996. Especially helpful to teachers is Lynch’s 1992 outline of stratification in India.
v See M. Sharma 1984, Gould 1990.
vi See Dubey 1992.
This essay is © 2004 Doranne Jacobson and may be reproduced only with the permission of the author.
Author: Doranne Jacobson.