1. Homi Bhabha, The Location of Culture. (London: Routledge, 1994), p.2.
2. Edward Said, “Intellectuals in the Post-Colonial World,” in Salgamundi No.70/71 (New
York: Skidmore College, 1986): 46
3. Marshall Berman, All that is Solid Melts into Air: The Experience of Modernity. (New York:
Simon and Schuster, 1982), p.23.
4. Erika Fischer-Lichte, Theatre, Sacrifice, Ritual, Exploring Forms of Political Theatre
(London: Routledge, 2005), pp.32–33.
5. Quotes are taken from the original catalogues of the Shiraz Arts Festival.
6. Arnold Aronson, American Avant-Garde Theatre: A History. (New York: Routledge, 2000),
7. Jacques Derrida, “The Theatre of Cruelty and the Closure of Representation,” in Writing
and Difference, Trans. Alan Bass (Chicago, 1978), p.240.
8. Erika Fischer-Lichte, Theatre, Sacrifice, Ritual, Exploring Forms of Political Theatre
(London: Routledge, 2005), p. 228.
9. Julia Kristeva, cited in Hal Foster, The Return of the Real (Cambridge, Mass.; London:
October Books/MIT Press, 1996), p.153.
11. Hal Foster, The Return of the Real (Cambridge, Mass.; London: October Books/MIT Press,
12. Author’s interview with Empress Farah Diba, patron of the Festival and Bijan Saffari,
architect, artist and co-organizer of the Festival.
14. Author’s interviews with Saddreddin Zahed (actor and scholar), Mohammad-Bagher
Ghaffari (actor and director), Atilla Pessyani (actor and director), and Shohreh Aghdashloo
15. Ru-hozi is a form of comic improvisatory performance in Iran whose roots are
obscure. This type of performance has been compared to similar traditions across
cultures in Asia and Europe, including Indonesian ludruk, Malaysian boria, Indian
forms and the late Italian Renaissance commedia dell’arte. There are reasons to
believe that these folkloric traditions shared a common root in ancient antiquity. In
Ru-hozi the central figure is a clown and there are stock figures like the Haji
(traditional merchant), a king or ruler, a woman (played by a man), a youth, courtiers,
and sometimes other specialized characters such as doctor. the stories are simple and
often taken from Iranian folklore and sometimes literature. For further information
see Prof. William Beeman, Comic Improvisatory Theater in Iran and its Influence on
Modern Drama, presented at Iran: New Voices, Barbican Arts Centre, London
16. Author’s interview with Nuria Espert.